End Notes

1.Ian Patterson in Guernica and Total War identifies “total war” as “the belief that the most effective way of winning wars was by the obliteration, or the threat of obliteration, of the civilian population of the enemy’s towns and cities by means of an annihilating attack from the air” (2). Though this is our working definition of total war, it is important to note that Paul Saint-Amour, in his recently published Tense Future, complicates any simple rendering of the concept “total war.” He shows that the construct “total war” serves a narrative that historically privileges unequal distributions of global power, and that much of “total war” discourse relies on a concept of state or center where certain bodies are ‘counted’ as victims of total war and others do not. See especially Chapter 1, “On the Partiality of Total War.”

2. Tracing the discipline of Peace Studies, Jean Mills juxtaposes ‘positive peace’ with ‘negative peace’ in Virginia Woolf, Jane Ellen Harrison, and the Spirit of Modernist Classicism. She explains, “negative peace refers to the absence of direct violence, and places an emphasis on approaches for conflict management, such as peacekeeping, whereas, peace-building is an example of positive peace. By the mid-1990s, Peace Studies curricula in the West had shifted ‘from research and teaching about negative peace, the cessation of violence, to positive peace, 7 the conditions that eliminate the causes of violence’ (Harris, Fisk and Rank)” (135–136).

3. There were a plethora of societies and organizations working towards social justice and world peace. A sampling includes, for example, the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, War Resisters‘ International, the International Peace Campaign, the Rassemblement Universel pour la Paix, the Spanish feminist movement Mujeres Libres, the Indian National Congress, and the League of Nations Union.

4. See Three Guineas, where Virginia Woolf quotes Josephine Butler, 121.

5. Quoted in Conscience and Conflict by Simon Martin, 11.

6. See Helen Graham, The War and its Shadow, 32.

7. For further information on the history of the Spanish Civil War, see Paul Preston, The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge and Helen Graham, The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction. For more on the Spanish Civil War as a total war, see Paul Preston, The Spanish Holocaust.

8. See Helen Graham, The War and its Shadow, 37.

9. Jessica Berman, in Modernist Commitments, describes total war as “where commonplace distinctions between the home front and battlefront disintegrate and where the patterns of everyday life in the besieged areas become completely disrupted” (187).

10. For further reading on the testimonies, see the website Quakers in Britain: Faith and Action.

11. Alfred Jacob to Miss Judith Corcoran, 8 December, 1936. The Library of the Religious Society of Friends at Friends House, London. FSC/R/SP/1/1 Barcelona: letters and reports 1936–1937.

12. Diary 1 June, 1939. John Rich Papers. MC. 880, Box 1, Folder 4. Quaker & Special Collections, Haverford College.

13. Discussions of the Quaker testimony for peace in Spain, the network of care it sought to create, and the interplay between the Society of Friends, modernist artistic networks, and transnational pacifisms, are expanded and further explored in J. Ashley Foster’s forthcoming article “Recovering Pacifisms Past: Modernist Networks, the Society of Friends, and the Peace Movement of the Spanish Civil War,” to be published in the collected volume Quakers in Literature in April, 2016.

14. From War and Writers in the Three Guineas Reading Notebooks, Monks House Papers/B. 16f. Vol 2 (Sussex), 28.

15. See the Spain & Culture event programme, where concerned citizens attended an event at Royal Albert Hall on June 24, 1937 to raise money for Spanish relief, particularly the Basque refugee children. Listed on this programme as supporters for the cause, the cover image of which Picasso donated to the event, are Vanessa Bell, Leonard and Virginia Woolf, Stephen Spender, W.H. Auden, C. Day Lewis, E.M. Forster, and Duncan Grant. Paul Robeson sang at the event, as Martin notes (51).

16. Introduction, xlv